Coffee roasting is a complex process that involves the careful application of heat to green coffee beans in an effort to transform the basic stuff of life contained within each seed – sugars, proteins, acids, etc – into delightful aromas of roasted nuts, malts, chocolate, fruit, berries, flowers and more. We combine our years of roasting knowledge and experience to create the perfect roast.
At the beginning of the roasting process once we have received our organic raw "green" coffee beans from the farmers,they are hand scooped into the roaster. The "green" coffee beans then drop into the roasting chamber where the temperature reaches upwards of 250C. The roasting chamber then starts to rotate and toss the coffee beans around the chamber - similar how a clothes dryer works.
For the first four minutes, a high amount of heat is pumped into the chamber to bring the coffee up to the ideal roasting temperature. This stage of roasting has to be done quickly enough to preserve some of the internal moisture of the bean. The colour of the coffee will start to transform from a green to yellow.
The next five minutes of roasting the coffee goes through a crucial change. During these few minutes the coffee undergoes drastic changes at low roasting temperatures around 160C. At this point in the roasting process we are able to distinguish the taste and flavours that will be associated with the roast. The colour will then start to change from yellow to a light brown.
During the final minutes of roasting the coffees full flavour is developed. At around 120C the "first-crack" will occur- a popping sound caused by the expansion of water vapor and carbon dioxide gasses inside the beans. After the first-crack the internal pressure of the beans drop due to the release of the gasses, resulting in the perfectly roasted bean.
At temperatures upwards of 180C the sugars and amino acids in the coffee react at a rapid pace to create the final flavour of the beans. The flavour of a "medium roast" coffee is produced by the carmelization of the natural sugars in the beans as well as the combination of sugars and amino acids in whats called the "Mailard reaction"- similar to the flavours develped during the browning of meat on a grill. During this process the coffee turns darker shades of brown and often develops a "nutty", chocolate like aroma.
Each roast of coffee has a precise final roasting temperature and time, both developed through a combination of our knowledge and old fashioned trial and error. Every coffee is unique and requires a balance of temperature and time to reach its individual peak of aroma, body, acidity and flavour.
Coffee which is roasted above 200C is considered a dark roast. At these temperatures the aromas and flavours of the beans that were developed during the initial stages are combusted and new aromas and flavours that are smokier and spicier will develop. The sweet and acidic tastes are replaced by the development of bitters. Most dark roast coffees are roasted between 200C and 250C.
After the coffee has cooled to 50C or below it is weighed and sealed in a bag containing a one-way valve to ensure that the carbon dioxide released by the beans can escape but no air can re-enter the bag. Once the bags are labeled they are then hand delivered to local restaurants, cafes and retail partners within 3 days of being roasted.